EQUATIONS









 
 
According to Newton's laws the inertia force (i.e., mass times acceleration) has to be equal to the applied forces.

In our case, the applied forces are :

- the gravity force 

- the damping force 

- the stress 

- a sinusoidal excitation force 

where q is the angle with respect to the vertical, M is the mass, L is the length, g is the acceleration of gravity and g is the damping.

The driving force has amplitude A and driving frequency omega, wf.
 
 

The equality of forces is :

The projection on uq gives :







Finally, the equation of motion for a damped, sinusoidally driven pendulum in the earth's gravitational field is :

For the calculations, we choose values for M and L so that the products ML and g/L are equal to unity, it simplifies the equation to:

The chaotic behavior of the pendulum which can be observed, of course, come from the sinusoidal non-linear term.