Marker Particles

The particle method is a mesh less method. Material to be simulated in form of individual particles. It is applicable for low phase fractions. For example, solid particles in air (eg. coal particle combustion) or fluid droplets in air (eg. diesel spray combustion). The limitation is that numbers of drops can be huge, which would cause large computational cost. Or drops are typically confined to relatively small regions of whole computational domain.

  • It tracks phase interface by Lagrangian marker particles in a fixed grid.
  • ​Phase interface can be reconstructed by polynomials through neighboring marker particles.
    ⇒ phase interface geometry is very accurate (normal, curvature).
    ⇒need to keep connectivity information of markers.
    ⇒topology changes are difficult.

  • Normal interface movement (phase change) is challenging.
  • ​The method does provides sub-grid phase interface resolution.